Public sector organizations are responsible for maintaining trust and storing sensitive data. Unfortunately, they have become a popular target for cyber threats, ranging from data breaches to advanced nation-state attacks. To address this evolving cyber risk landscape, it is essential to take a proactive approach to cybersecurity. This will help safeguard critical infrastructure and protect the privacy of citizen data.
As our society becomes more dependent on digital technologies for delivering important services, the impact of cyber incidents can go beyond just data loss. It can also threaten national security, public safety, and the economy. In this blog post, we will explore the complexities of cybersecurity in the public sector, the strategies to combat them, and the path to secure the digital governance frontier.
What is the Public Sector?
The public sector comprises all government agencies, organizations, and entities, ranging from federal and state to local government. It manages critical functions such as healthcare, education, public safety, and infrastructure. Unlike the private sector, which is motivated by profit and competition, the public sector's primary objective is to provide services to its citizens and uphold public welfare.
The Public Sector’s Cyber Landscape
The public sector's cyber landscape includes many complex challenges and responsibilities. Given the abundance of sensitive data processed, such as citizens' personal information, classified government data, and critical infrastructure details, the sector is an enticing target of various cyber threats. These threats are not restricted to common cybercriminals but involve sophisticated espionage and sabotage schemes by nation-states and terrorist groups.
Public sector entities face a challenging environment when it comes to cybersecurity. They often operate with aging infrastructure and outdated systems, vulnerable to cyberattacks. On top of this, budget constraints and bureaucratic hurdles make it difficult to maintain robust cyber defenses.
Additionally, there is a shortage of skilled cybersecurity personnel to help with the task. The interconnected nature of public sector services (which often utilize the supply chain) means that a cyber breach in one area can have cascading effects across multiple departments, amplifying the impact of cyber incidents.
Notable Cyber Incidents in the Public Sector
The public sector has faced multiple cyber incidents, each with its own set of vulnerabilities and outcomes. These incidents demonstrate public sector organizations' various cyber threats, from data theft and espionage to disruptive ransomware attacks.
These incidents highlight the importance of having strong public sector cybersecurity policies to safeguard sensitive information and maintain the public's trust. Some of the noteworthy cybersecurity incidents include:
- Office of Personnel Management (OPM) Data Breach: A foreign entity breached the security of US federal employees, compromising the sensitive data of over 21 million individuals. The stolen data included background check information, raising serious national security concerns.
- City of Atlanta Ransomware Attack: In 2018, the City of Atlanta was hit by a major ransomware attack that paralyzed city services, costing the city millions to recover.
- Estonia Cyber Attacks (2007): Estonia faced politically motivated cyber-attacks on government websites, banks, and media outlets that disrupted critical infrastructure, revealing the potential of cyber warfare.
- Singapore Health Services Data Breach (2018): Hackers stole the personal information of 1.5 million patients, including the Prime Minister of Singapore, in a significant healthcare data breach, highlighting the vulnerability of personal health information.
- German Parliament (Bundestag) Cyber Attack (2015): The German parliament was hit by a major cyber attack from a foreign hacking group that resulted in significant data theft and highlighted the vulnerability of national government bodies to cyber espionage tactics.
Regulation and Compliance
These regulatory frameworks aim to establish a baseline for cybersecurity practices, enforce data protection, and ensure a uniform response to cyber incidents. Below are four examples of cybersecurity regulations in the public sector.
United States: Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA)
The Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) is a federal law enacted in 2002 in the United States. This law requires all federal agencies to establish a comprehensive framework to protect government information, operations, and assets from natural and artificial threats.FISMA mandates that each agency must develop, document, and implement a program that provides information security for all the information and information systems that support the operations and assets of the agency, including those handled by third parties.
Key aspects of FISMA include:
- Risk Categorization
- Security Controls
- Risk Assessments
- Continuous Monitoring of Information Systems
- Mandated Regular Audits
European Union: General Data Protection Regulation
GDPR is a set of regulations that came into effect in May 2018, aimed at harmonizing data privacy laws across Europe, protecting and empowering EU citizens' data privacy, and changing how organizations approach data privacy. GDPR's broad scope and stringent requirements have significantly impacted how public sector agencies in the EU handle and secure personal data.
Under GDPR, public sector entities are required to:
- Ensure the protection of personal data
- Provide transparency about data processing activities
- Enable individuals to exercise their privacy rights (right to access, rectify, and erase personal data)
- Report certain types of data breaches
Australia: The Australian Government Information Security Manual
The Australian Government Information Security Manual (ISM) is a set of guidelines developed by the ACSC for government ICT systems. It provides mandatory and advisory security controls to protect information and systems from unauthorized access, modification, or loss. The ISM is regularly updated to address new and evolving cyber threats, ensuring best practices in information security. It includes areas such as:
Cybersecurity Act of 2018 (Singapore)
Singapore's Cybersecurity Act of 2018 aims to protect Critical Information Infrastructure (CII) in essential sectors and enhance national cybersecurity defenses. The legislation takes a comprehensive and adaptable approach to cybersecurity, balancing national security needs with the operational realities of Singapore's advanced digital landscape. Key features of the act include:
- Protection of Critical Information Infrastructure
- Establishment of a Cybersecurity Commission
- Licensing of Cybersecurity Service Providers
- Mandatory Incident Reporting
- Proactive Legal Powers
Best Practices for Cybersecurity in the Public Sector
The public sector is responsible for safeguarding sensitive information and upholding public trust in the face of advanced cybersecurity threats. It is crucial to implement strong cybersecurity best practices to achieve this goal. Here is a detailed overview of these practices, tailored specifically for the public sector.
Implement a Comprehensive Cybersecurity Framework
Public sector entities must establish a comprehensive cybersecurity framework based on recognized standards such as NIST in the US or GDPR in Europe. This framework must be tailored to address the challenges and risks inherent to the public sector. It should include clear policies on data protection, incident response, and user behavior. Advanced technologies such as AI and machine learning should be integrated into the threat detection and prevention framework. The framework must also be flexible enough to adapt to evolving cyber threats and technological advancements.
Regular Risk Assessment and Management
Public sector organizations must regularly evaluate their cybersecurity risks in light of the constantly evolving nature of threats and the changing landscape of IT infrastructure, including cloud services and mobile technology. This process should involve identifying valuable assets, assessing vulnerabilities, and evaluating the potential impact of cyber threats. Effective risk management also requires creating a prioritized plan to address the identified risks and regularly reviewing and updating the risk management strategy to account for new threats and organizational changes.
Employee Training and Awareness Programs
When working in the public sector, where dealing with sensitive citizen information is a regular task, it is essential to have well-trained employees who follow cybersecurity best practices. The training programs should cover topics such as identifying phishing attempts, secure handling of confidential data, and compliance with internal security policies. Regular awareness sessions can create a security culture where employees are the first defense against cyber threats.
Multi-Layered Defense Strategy (Defense in Depth)
A multi-layered defense strategy is extremely important for public sector organizations to safeguard against a wide range of cyber threats. This approach involves implementing a combination of firewalls, intrusion detection and prevention systems, antivirus and anti-malware software, and encryption technologies. Moreover, updating regularly and patching software and systems to defend against known vulnerabilities is essential. This layered approach ensures that even if one defense fails, others are in place to mitigate the threat.
Strict Access Control and User Authentication
In the public sector, where sensitive information is handled, it is essential to implement strict access controls and robust user authentication mechanisms. This includes role-based access controls to ensure employees are given access only to the information necessary for their job functions. Additionally, multi-factor authentication should add an extra layer of security when accessing critical systems, especially if agencies utilize Internet of Things (IoT) devices or other endpoints.
Regular Security Audits and Compliance Checks
Regular security audits are crucial for public sector organizations to ensure the effectiveness of their cybersecurity measures and compliance with relevant laws and regulations. These audits should be comprehensive and cover all aspects of cybersecurity, from technical defenses to policy compliance. In addition, complying with and keeping up-to-date with regulatory requirements, such as FISMA or GDPR, is necessary to uphold public trust and avoid legal consequences.
Incident Response and Recovery Plan
Public sector agencies need a well-defined plan for responding to and recovering from cyber incidents. This plan should contain precise guidelines for detecting, containing, and recovering from incidents and communicating with stakeholders. Regular drills and simulations can help prepare staff for incidents, ensuring a prompt and coordinated response to minimize damage.
Collaboration and Information Sharing
In today's digital era, cybersecurity is a major concern for both public-sector entities and private-sector partners. Organizations need to collaborate and share information to avoid potential threats. By sharing threat intelligence, best practices, and experiences, they can develop more robust cybersecurity strategies to help protect against cyberattacks and other forms of malicious activity. This collaborative approach can also help organizations identify and respond to emerging threats more quickly and effectively, ultimately enhancing overall cyber resilience.
UpGuard for the Public Sector: Rigid and Robust Cybersecurity
The public sector is just one industry that benefits from a robust and rigid cybersecurity program. UpGuard’s all-in-one external attack surface management platform, BreachSight, provides public sector organizations visibility across their entire organization, providing valuable insights that build cyber resilience.
BreachSight helps you understand the risks impacting your external security posture and ensures your assets are constantly monitored and protected. Our user-friendly platform makes it easy to view your organization’s cybersecurity at a glance and communicate internally about risks, vulnerabilities, or current security incidents. Other features include:
- Data Leak Detection: Protect your brand, intellectual property, and customer data with timely detection of data leaks and avoid data breaches
- Continuous Monitoring: Get real-time information and manage exposures, including domains, IPs, and employee credentials
- Attack Surface Reduction: Reduce your attack surface by discovering exploitable vulnerabilities and domains at risk of typosquatting
- Shared Security Profile: Eliminate having to answer security questionnaires by creating an UpGuard Shared Profile
- Workflows and Waivers: Simplify and accelerate how you remediate issues, waive risks, and respond to security queries
- Reporting and Insights: Access tailor-made reports for different stakeholders and view information about your external attack surface